There are unwelcome guests that can come after an unprepared sex life. It is a sexually transmitted infection, commonly referred to as a ‘sexually transmitted disease’.
The recent increase in sexually transmitted infections in Korea is alarming. According to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the cumulative number of cases of seven sexually transmitted infections from February to July of this year was 18,975, up 7.7% from the same period last year (17,516). In particular, △syphilis △human papillomavirus ( HPV ) infection △genital herpes simplex (herpes) △infection rate of chlamydia increased steeply.
Most of these sexually transmitted infections remain dormant even when there are no symptoms, appearing someday, and sometimes recurring whenever there is a chance. This is why prevention is best. Professor Park Yun-sun of the Department of Infectious Diseases at Gachon University Gil Hospital said, “If you have sex with a partner who has a sexually transmitted infection, wearing a condom can lower the infection rate. “If AIDS patients are their spouses, artificial insemination is not a small reason,” he explained. In particular, pregnant women with sexually transmitted infections should be aware that they can transmit them to their unborn babies. This is why the idea of ’if you get sick, you can get treatment’ is dangerous.
There is a survey result that the day of the week that Koreans enjoy their sex life the most is Saturday (62%), Friday (43%), and Sunday (28%) (Lilly Korea, 2014, multiple responses). This means that there is a high possibility that a sexually transmitted infection will come unexpectedly on a relaxed weekend. On the weekend, we look at the characteristic symptoms and prevention methods of the four sexually transmitted diseases that have recently increased.
syphilisSyphilis is an inflammatory disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, with symptoms of infection throughout the body.
Syphilis infection occurs when the skin of a sexual partner comes into direct contact with a skin ulcer created by the syphilis bacterium. Skin ulcers often occur in the genital area, vagina, anus, and rectum, but can also occur in the lips and oral cavity. If a pregnant woman is infected with syphilis, it can be passed on to her unborn baby. It is not transmitted by using the bathroom or through doorknobs, swimming pools, bathtubs, or eating utensils.
Syphilis is divided into stages 1 , 2 and 3 according to the stage of progression . The main symptom of primary syphilis is painless skin sores. In most cases, only one ulcer is observed, but there are cases in which several ulcers occur simultaneously. It takes 10 to 90 days for an ulcer to form after contact with the syphilis bacillus. Ulcers are hard, round, small and painless.
The painless ulcer itself lasts for 3 to 6 weeks, but improves spontaneously without special treatment. However, if syphilis is not treated, it progresses to secondary syphilis.
In stage 2 syphilis, painless sores in stage 1 appear as they heal, or appear several weeks after they have healed. In addition, rashes occur all over the body, especially on the palms and soles. It may also be accompanied by fever, swollen lymph nodes that do not hurt when pressed, sore throat, headache, weight loss, and muscle pain.
Tertiary syphilis is mainly caused by damage to internal organs, and it occurs when syphilis bacteria invade various organs such as the central nervous system, eyes, heart, large blood vessels, liver, bones, and joints. In the case of neurosyphilis that invades the central nervous system, symptoms may be asymptomatic or meningeal stimulation and cerebrovascular symptoms may occur. Hanyang University Hospital Infectious Disease Professor Park Se-yoon warned, “If syphilis invades the muscles and intestines, 50 to 70 percent of infected people die if they are not treated.”
Treatment is based on administration of antibiotics. Stages 1 and 2 can be treated with a single intramuscular injection of penicillin (a type of antibiotic). For neurosyphilis involving the cerebrospinal fluid, water-soluble penicillin must be injected intravenously. The surest way to prevent is to avoid sexual contact with a patient with syphilis, but if it is unavoidable, it is safer to use a latex condom that can cover the infected person’s ulcer.
Human papillomavirus ( HPV ) infectionHuman papillomavirus infection is a disease caused by a double-helix DNA virus belonging to the papillomavirus family. It is caused by a virus that causes warts and cervical cancer in the human body, and because the infected lesions are similar to human nipples (nipple), the virus name is human papilloma virus (HPV ) or human papilloma virus . There are over 100 types of
HPV . About 60 of them infect the ‘skin surface’ and cause warts. The remaining 40 species mainly infect the genital mucosa. It is divided into a low-risk type and a high-risk type according to the degree of risk . The ‘low-risk type’ causes genital warts such as condyloma acuminate and warts. HPV types 6 and 11 are the main causes. The ‘high-risk type’ can cause genital cancers such as cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, and penile cancer. HPV types 16 and 18 are representative. HPV types 16 and 18 are found in more than 70% of cervical cancer patients .
Human papillomavirus infection, especially in the genital area, is mostly spread through sexual contact. Most have no specific symptoms. So, most of them are unaware that they are infected with the human papillomavirus. Even if infected, in most cases the person’s immune system clears the HPV . The average infection period is about 9 months, and 90% of infected people heal naturally without special treatment within 2 years.
However, if you are continuously infected with high-risk HPV, there is a high possibility that women will develop cervical cancer and men will progress to oropharyngeal cancer through oral sex. The surest way to prevent is to get the HPV vaccine before you get infected with HPV . If you are sexually active or have not been infected with HPV even after the age of 26 , vaccination can provide protection. The 9-valent vaccine ‘Gardasil’ can also be vaccinated by men. For males, the recommended age is 11 to 12 years of age, before sexual activity begins, but vaccination is recommended even after that.
According to the latest international medical journal ‘The Lancet’, more than 1 in 3 males over the age of 15 are infected with HPV . More than 100 types of HPV one in five men is infected with high-risk or potentially carcinogenic HPV , a study has found. Accordingly, on the 16th, the World Health Organization ( WHO)) said, “Although the frequency of infection is high, men are not active in HPV prevention, which is an obstacle to health policy . ”
Genital herpes simplex (herpes)Genital herpes simplex is a disease caused by a virus called herpes that causes blisters on the genital area. It is a common viral disease that causes herpes and erythema on the skin. Herpes is a relatively large virus with a size of 100 to 200 nm (nanometers) and contains DNA . This virus is divided into eight types according to genetic and biological types, among which herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 are herpes simplex viruses. Among them, type 1 causes lesions mainly around the mouth, and type 2 causes lesions around the genitals. Herpes type 2 is the cause of genital herpes simplex.
This kind of herpes has a strong tendency to reappear even after disappearing like a ‘zombie’ in a movie. Periodic recurrences occur in more than 80% of cases. The reason herpes lesions keep recurring is because the virus remains dormant in the sensory nerves먹튀검증 and is activated when the body’s immune function declines. It often recurs due to severe fatigue, stress, febrile illness, excessive sun exposure, or menstruation. Symptoms begin to appear after 2 to 10 days after sexual intercourse, the skin turns red and blisters appear, then the skin becomes sore and loose.
Blisters are painful, and symptoms are more severe in the case of initial infection than in the case of recurrence. Swelling of the lymph glands in the inguinal region (the junction between the thigh and lower abdomen) on both sides, or urination symptoms including acute urinary retention (obstruction of the urine path) may occur. These symptoms are more common in women than men. In case of initial infection, it may be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as high fever and muscle pain.
Herpes simplex can invade the nervous system, and in the case of meningitis caused by herpes simplex, it can lead to death. The most dangerous complication is when a mother with herpes simplex passes the virus to her unborn baby during normal delivery. In this case, neonatal mortality is high and may cause serious sequelae. Therefore, prevention of herpes simplex is best. During sexual intercourse, condoms should be used to prevent transmission of the herpes virus.
chlamydial infectionChlamydia is a sexually transmitted disease caused by infection with the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Nongonococcal urethritis in men and cervicitis in women.
The incubation period is 7 to 14 days, or more. In urethritis caused by infection with this bacterium, itching (itching), dysuria, and mucopurulent (pus) discharge appear. Proctitis may occur after anal sex with an infected person, and symptoms such as pain or aftereffects (a disease that is almost healed and then reappears) may appear. Even after confirming that you are infected with this bacterium, serious complications can occur if left untreated. Complications include epididymitis, prostatitis, and infertility in men, and salpingitis, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain in women. Therefore, you should seek immediate medical attention, including your sexual partner.
Co-infection with gonorrhea and chlamydia is common in people with chlamydia. Simultaneous treatment of both is recommended. Among the antibiotics, azithromycin and doxycycline are used. However, in the case of pregnant women, azithromycin can be administered. Newborns of infected mothers are given chest X-rays at 3 weeks and 12 to 18 weeks after birth to check for asymptomatic pneumonia. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms, can reduce infection rates. Anyone who has had sexual intercourse with an infected person should be treated as well.